The Role of Government in Journalism
The feds play a part in distribution, not content.
Kicking off Day Two of the Federal Trade Commissionâs recent hearings on the dismal economics of journalism last month, Rep. Henry Waxman, chairman of the powerful House Energy and Commerce Committee, declared that government would have to step in, âone way or the other,â to help the publishing industry survive a âmarket failureâ that threatens independent journalism. He wasnât specific about the nature of such aid, conceding âCongress canât impose a solution.â But he left no doubt that he believes itâs the governmentâs role to spring to journalismâs defense.
This pledge appealed to some participants, like those representing public-media entities including PBS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. âCongress should adopt legislation that would provide substantial additional resources to public-service journalism,â said Mark MacCarthy, professor of communications at Georgetown University, arguing that government involvement in the arts, sciences and other fields is âtraditional, mainstream and all-American.â âThis is not some weird, strange aberration and alien intrusion into our life,â MacCarthy said. âThis is the way we do things in this country.â
Words of Warning
For any publishers tempted by such a government rescue, I would invoke six words of warning: Robert Mapplethorpe, Ken Tomlinson, Enola Gay. Â
These names are loaded for a reason. Mapplethorpe was a notable art photographer before he became a cause cĂ©lĂšbre, one of several artists whose work caught the attention of conservative groups when exhibitions were funded by the National Endowment of the Arts. In the 1990s, the NEA received between $160 and $180 million to underwrite arts in the U.S., but under pressure its funding was halved in 1996 and has yet to recover. The NEA stopped funding individual artistsâ work.
Ken Tomlinson was named chairman of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting by president George W. Bush in 2003 and immediately began hunting for âliberal biasâ in public television, funding an investigation of Bill Moyers, and violating both CPB regulations and federal law by raising money to underwrite a program run by the editorial board of the Wall Street Journal. Â
The Smithsonianâs abortive effort to mount an exhibit around the WWII bomber plane Enola Gay was attacked by the Pentagon, veterans groups and members of Congress. This ended the tenure of the secretary and the curator of the Air and Space Museum, leaving the institutionâs credibility in tatters. The new secretary was forced to cancel the exhibit to keep funding intact. Itâs unclear what was foregone later to avoid political fallout.
All support comes with strings attached, of course. Corporate ownership of publishing can be chilling, and even philanthropists have friends in high places. By comparison with government support, though, such pressures are benign. Even the effects of advertising on journalism are mild in contrast, since the sources of revenue are multilateral.
Dual Revenue Stream Model Not Broken
Turns out, the dual-revenue stream model for newspapers and magazines is about as ideal as a business model can be, at least for independent journalism.
And that model still works. It has a bright future in the world of digital broadband to which magazinesâat long lastâare migrating. As the new generation of tablets and their descendents change the Internet from a âlean-forward,â desktop information utility to a âlean-backâ immersion experience, all the video and rich media advertising that has been on the sidelines for lack of a proper home will find its way to those places where consumers will pay to beâand the best kind of public support, the kind that independent journalism can really rely on, is circulation revenue.
Will people pay for journalism? Of course they will. It is hard to imagine why this question persists. When have people failed to pay for what they want and need?
Government has a role here, but itâs about the distribution channel, not the content. Broadband penetration brings the digital divide issue into sharp relief. Where government funding is neededâindeed, criticalâis to ensure universal high-speed access to the Internet and the broad availability, especially of broadband learning devices in schools. Until government can be trusted to take over the role of comforting the afflicted and afflicting the comfortableâand the health-care debate hardly suggests that moment has comeâjournalism should continue to make its own way.
Jim Gaines is the editor-in-chief of multimedia magazine FLYPmedia. Gaines formerly served as managing editor at People, Time and Life magazines and as the corporate editor of Time Inc.
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